Transducer - mass loaded
An idealized Langevin transducer where:
- The ceramic is centrally located.
- The ceramic mass is considered negligible compared to the end masses.
- The end masses are considered infinitely rigid (i.e., no strain during vibration).
"Under these circumstances all elastic energy is dielectrically coupled and the static and dynamic coupling factors are identical. There are therefore no overtones of the fundamental mode and the equivalent circuit is valid from dc to frequencies approacing the lowest resonance frequency of one or more individual parts of the assembled transducer." (Berlincourt, p. 246) Such a transducer then can be represented exactly as a lumped spring-mass system.